September 1998

Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured

Midwest Metropolitan Areas With 2 Million or More in Population Merged Data Years 1994, 1995, and 1996

Chicago Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA)

  • The percentage of the Chicago CMSA's nonelderly population (under age 65) without health insurance coverage was 13.2 percent. This is lower than the national rate of 17.7 percent. The Chicago CMSA's nonelderly population also had a higher rate of private coverage, 77.6 percent, than the national rate of 70.9 percent.
  • Children living in the Chicago CMSA -- infants through age 17 -- had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 66.1 percent, than the national rate of 58.9 percent. The uninsured rate for children in the Chicago CMSA, 10.4 percent, was below the national rate, 14.8 percent.
  • Children living in families with incomes at 150 percent to 199 percent of the federal poverty level were the most likely to be uninsured, 18.7 percent, and children in families with income at 400 percent or more of the federal poverty level were least likely, 4.1 percent.
  • Workers in the Chicago CMSA had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 80.0 percent, than the national rate of 72.3 percent. Also, 62.6 percent of workers in the Chicago CMSA had employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name, compared with 55.2 percent for the nation.
  • Larger firms were more likely than smaller firms to provide coverage: 75.0 percent of workers in the Chicago CMSA in firms with 1,000 or more workers had coverage in their own name, compared with 31.1 percent of workers in firms with fewer than 10 employees.
  • Among workers in the Chicago CMSA, the most likely to have employment-based health insurance in their own name were those in manufacturing, 79.1 percent, and government, 77.4 percent. Workers in government had the lowest uninsured rate in the CMSA, 3.9 percent, followed by workers in finance, insurance, and real estate at 7.9 percent. Workers in wholesale/retail trade and construction had the highest uninsured rates in the CMSA, 18.8 percent and 17.6 percent, respectively.
  • Among individuals ages 18-64, full-time workers had a higher rate of employment-based coverage, 85.1 percent, than part-time workers, 73.3 percent. They had a lower uninsured rate, 10.3 percent, than part-time workers, 16.5 percent. Among nonworkers, 45.3 percent had employment-based coverage, and 23.7 percent were uninsured.

Cincinnati Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area

  • The percentage of the Cincinnati CMSA's nonelderly population (under age 65) without health insurance coverage, 11.9 percent, was lower than the national rate of 17.7 percent. The Cincinnati CMSA's nonelderly population also had a higher rate of private coverage, 83.5 percent, than the national rate of 70.9 percent.
  • Children living in the Cincinnati CMSA -- infants through age 17 -- had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 78.9 percent, than the national rate of 58.9 percent. The uninsured rate for children in the Cincinnati CMSA, 11.9 percent, was also below the national rate of 14.8 percent.
  • Children living in families with incomes below the federal poverty level were the most likely to be uninsured, 43.3 percent. Children in families with incomes at 400 percent or more of the federal poverty level were least likely to be uninsured, 2.5 percent.
  • A higher rate of workers in the Cincinnati CMSA had employment-based health insurance coverage, 80.6 percent, than the national rate of 72.3 percent. Also, 57.7 percent of workers in the Cincinnati CMSA had employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name, compared with 55.2 percent for the nation.
  • Larger firms were more likely than smaller firms to provide coverage. Among workers in the Cincinnati CMSA in firms with 1,000 or more workers, 67.6 percent had coverage in their own name, compared with 33.6 percent of workers in firms with fewer than 10 employees.
  • Among workers in the Cincinnati CMSA, the most likely to have employment-based health insurance in their own name were those in transportation, communications, and utilities, 78.9 percent, and in manufacturing, 78.6 percent. Workers in government had the lowest uninsured rate in the CMSA, 2.4 percent, followed by those in finance, insurance, and real estate, 4.2 percent. Workers in construction and in wholesale/retail trade had the highest uninsured rate in the CMSA at 25.2 percent and 20.2 percent, respectively.
  • Among individuals ages 18-64, full-time workers had a higher rate of employment-based coverage, 84.1 percent, than part-time workers, 73.6 percent. They had a lower uninsured rate, 11.5 percent, than part-time workers, 12.5 percent. Among nonworkers, 51.7 percent had employment-based coverage, and 15.3 percent were uninsured.

Cleveland Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area

  • The percentage of the Cleveland CMSA's nonelderly population (under age 65) without health insurance coverage, 10.4 percent, was lower than the national rate of 17.7 percent. The Cleveland CMSA's nonelderly population also had a higher rate of private coverage, 78.5 percent, than the national rate of 70.9 percent.
  • Children living in the Cleveland CMSA -- infants through age 17 -- had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 68.2 percent, than the national rate of 58.9 percent. The uninsured rate for children in the Cleveland CMSA, 9.0 percent, was below the national rate, 14.8 percent.
  • Children living in families with incomes just above the federal poverty level -- 100 percent to 149 percent of poverty -- were the most likely to be uninsured, 24.5 percent. Children in families with incomes at 400 percent or more of the federal poverty level were least likely to be uninsured, 3.3 percent.
  • Workers in the Cleveland CMSA had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 79.7 percent, than the nation, 72.3 percent. Also, 59.3 percent of workers in the Cleveland CMSA had employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name, compared with 55.2 percent for the nation.
  • Larger firms were more likely than smaller firms to provide coverage. Among workers in the Cleveland CMSA in firms with 1,000 or more workers, 68.5 percent had coverage in their own name, compared with 24.2 percent of workers in firms with fewer than 10 employees.
  • Among workers in the Cleveland CMSA, the most likely to have employment-based health insurance in their own name were those in manufacturing, 77.6 percent and in transportation, communications, and utilities, 76.2 percent. Government workers had the lowest uninsured rate in the CMSA, 3.0 percent, followed by workers in manufacturing at 8.7 percent. The highest uninsured rates in the CMSA were among workers who were self-employed, 23.9 percent, and in the wholesale/retail trade, 19.0 percent.
  • Among individuals ages 18-64, full-time workers had a higher rate of employment-based coverage, 85.8 percent, than part-time workers, 75.0 percent. They had a lower uninsured rate, 10.8 percent than part-time workers, 11.3 percent. Among nonworkers, 50.0 percent had employment-based coverage, and 18.3 were uninsured.

Detroit Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area

  • The percentage of the Detroit CMSA's nonelderly population (under age 65) without health insurance coverage, 9.3 percent, was lower than the national rate of 17.7 percent. The Detroit CMSA's nonelderly population also had a higher rate of private coverage, 80.0 percent, than the national rate of 70.9 percent.
  • Children living in the Detroit CMSA -- infants through age 17 -- had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 67.4 percent, than the national rate of 58.9 percent. The uninsured rate for children in the Detroit CMSA, 6.2 percent, was below the national rate, 7.7 percent.
  • Children living in families with incomes below the federal poverty level were the most likely to be uninsured, 16.3 percent. Children in families with incomes of 400 percent or more of the federal poverty level were least likely to be uninsured, 3.6 percent.
  • Workers in the Detroit CMSA had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 83.1 percent, than the nation, 72.3 percent. Also, 60.2 percent of workers in the Detroit CMSA had employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name, compared with 55.2 percent for the nation.
  • Larger firms were more likely than smaller firms to provide coverage. Among workers in the Detroit CMSA in firms with 1,000 or more workers, 69.5 percent had coverage in their own name, compared with 32.5 percent of those in firms with fewer than 10 employees.
  • Among workers in the Detroit CMSA, the most likely to have employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name were those in manufacturing, 82.3 percent, and in transportation, communications, and utilities, 81.2 percent. Manufacturing workers had the lowest uninsured rate in the CMSA, 5.4 percent, followed by workers in government, 6.3 percent. Workers in construction had the highest uninsured rate in the CMSA, 17.6 percent, followed by workers who were self-employed, 17.4 percent.
  • Among individuals ages 18-64, full-time workers had a higher rate of employment-based coverage, 89.3 percent, than part-time workers, 70.7 percent. They had a lower uninsured rate, 7.7 percent, than part-time workers, 10.8 percent. Among nonworkers, 52.4 percent had employment-based coverage, and 15.1 percent were uninsured.

Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

  • The percentage of the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA's nonelderly population (under age 65) without health insurance coverage, 11.8 percent, was lower than the national rate of 17.7 percent. The Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA's nonelderly population also had a higher rate of private coverage, 80.8 percent, than the national rate of 70.9 percent.
  • Children living in the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA -- infants through age 17 -- had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 68.0 percent, than the national rate of 58.9 percent. The uninsured rate for children in the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA, 7.1 percent, was well below the national rate of 14.8 percent.
  • Children living in families with incomes below the federal poverty level were the most likely to be uninsured, 20.7 percent. Children in families with incomes of 400 percent or more of the federal poverty level were least likely to be uninsured, 1.9 percent.
  • Workers in the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 79.3 percent, than the national rate of 72.3 percent. Also, 58.8 percent of workers in the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA had employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name, compared with 55.2 percent for the nation.
  • Larger firms were more likely than smaller firms to provide coverage. Among workers in the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA in firms with 1,000 or more workers, 71.4 percent had coverage in their own name, compared with 27.2 percent of those in firms with fewer than 10 employees.
  • Among workers in the Minneapolis/St. Paul MSA, the most likely to have employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name were those in manufacturing, 80.2 percent, and in government, 73.8 percent. Manufacturing workers had the lowest uninsured rate in the MSA, 3.5 percent, followed by government workers, 4.2 percent. Wholesale/retail trade workers had the highest uninsured rate in the MSA, 19.9 percent, followed by construction workers at 13.6 percent.
  • Among individuals ages 18-64, full-time workers had a higher rate of employment-based coverage, 85.4 percent, than part-time workers, 69.8 percent. They had a lower uninsured rate, 8.2 percent, than part-time workers, 9.7 percent. Among nonworkers, 48.8 percent had employment-based coverage, and 17.2 percent were uninsured.

St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

  • The percentage of the St. Louis MSA's nonelderly population (under age 65) without health insurance coverage, 14.3 percent, was lower than the national rate of 17.7 percent. The St. Louis MSA's nonelderly population also had a higher rate of private coverage, 74.5 percent, than the national rate of 70.9 percent.
  • Children living in the St. Louis MSA -- infants through age 17 -- had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 59.8 percent, than the national rate of 58.9 percent. The uninsured rate for children in the St. Louis MSA, 11.0 percent, was below the national rate of 14.8 percent.
  • Children living in families with incomes below the federal poverty level were the most likely to be uninsured, 22.5 percent. Children in families with incomes of 400 percent or more of the federal poverty level were least likely to be uninsured, 2.6 percent.
  • Workers in the St. Louis MSA had a higher rate of employment-based health insurance coverage, 76.2 percent, than the national rate of 72.3 percent. Also, 59.6 percent of workers in the St. Louis MSA had employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name, compared with 55.2 percent for the nation.
  • Larger firms were more likely than smaller firms to provide coverage. Among workers in the St. Louis MSA in firms with 1,000 or more workers, 67.9 percent had coverage in their own name, compared with 30.7 percent of those in firms with fewer than 10 employees.
  • Among workers in the St. Louis MSA, the most likely to have employment-based health insurance coverage in their own name were those finance, insurance, and real estate, 83.6 percent, and in manufacturing, 81.7 percent. Finance, insurance, and real estate workers had the lowest uninsured rate in the MSA, 2.3 percent, followed by workers in government, 7.7 percent. Workers in wholesale/retail trade had the highest uninsured rate in the MSA, 21.2 percent, followed by workers who were self-employed, 20.3 percent.
  • Among individuals ages 18-64, full-time workers had a higher rate of employment-based coverage, 83.0 percent, than part-time workers, 65.6 percent. They had a lower uninsured rate, 10.2 percent, than part-time workers, 22.5 percent. Among nonworkers, 41.0 percent had employment-based coverage, and 22.2 percent were uninsured.

For more information, contact Ken McDonnell, (202) 775-6342, or visit EBRI online at www.ebri.org.
Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute tabulations of data from the March 1995, March 1996, and March 1997 Current Population Surveys.
9/98